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Introduction

## is a continuous of the straight lines and curves with a radius of a fixed or variable.

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Purpose

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to connect a straight line through th point of intersection which lies between two straight lines to allow the movement to reverse slowly in the horizontal and vertical direction.

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Reasons for curve construction
- physical state of hilly land, swampy

- connecting the exit or entrance as the exit roads 'tolls'

- avoiding the position of the detail remain such as building mosques, cemeteries

- safety of road uses in order to travel more comfortable and secure

Definition
- Horizontal curve
- curves of constant radius requires to connect two straight set out on the ground

- Vertical curves

- the curves are designed and built to connect the straight lines with cicular curves

- Transition curves

- the curves are designed and made to join two different straight slope

Purpose
- Horizontal curves

- for the convenience of road users.

- to connect the straight lines with a horizontal curve

- Vertical curves

- to avoid situation where a sudden change in the vehicle entering the curve from a straight round

- Transition curve

- to avoid the situation where a sudden change in the vehicle when it start down the road after climbing a hill or otherwise

Types
- Horizontal curves

- transition curves

- circular curves

- compound curves

- reverse curves

- Vertical curves

- crest curves

- sag curves

- Transition curves

- crest curves

- sag / summit curves

Setting out method
- Horizontal curves

- offset from the Tangent Line

- offset from the Long Chords Line

- Deflection Angle method

- Sub Chords Line method

- Vertical curves

- by Levelling

- Transition curves

- Deflection Angle method

- physical state of hilly land, swampy

- connecting the exit or entrance as the exit roads 'tolls'

- avoiding the position of the detail remain such as building mosques, cemeteries

- safety of road uses in order to travel more comfortable and secure

- curves of constant radius requires to connect two straight set out on the ground

- the curves are designed and built to connect the straight lines with cicular curves

- the curves are designed and made to join two different straight slope

- for the convenience of road users.

- to connect the straight lines with a horizontal curve

- to avoid situation where a sudden change in the vehicle entering the curve from a straight round

- to avoid the situation where a sudden change in the vehicle when it start down the road after climbing a hill or otherwise

- transition curves

- circular curves

- compound curves

- reverse curves

- crest curves

- sag curves

- crest curves

- sag / summit curves

- offset from the Tangent Line

- offset from the Long Chords Line

- Deflection Angle method

- Sub Chords Line method

- by Levelling

- Deflection Angle method

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